Flora of Turkey

Turkey is home to around 9300 species of vascular plants, just 24% less than the whole of Europe. Nearly one third of plants are endemic to Turkey and the nearby Aegean Islands, in part because of the mountainous and fragmentised nature of Anatolia.

Flora of Turkey

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Turkey has is the richest flora on the temperate zone. The wide variation in topography and climate; the fact that Turkey is surrounded by four seas, each with its own ecological constitution; and the relatively late development of industry and agriculture has resulted in an phenomenal wealth of plant and animal life within Turkey’s borders. This extraordinary degree of biodiversity was augmented during the Ice Age, when northern animals strayed south seeking warmer climes, and many remained in their new homelands. Turkey is also situated on the main migratory routes for birds between Asia, Africa and Europe, thus increasing the number of species found here.

Vegetation and flora of Turkey (Wikipedia)

For a visitor from Central Europe climatic diversity within Turkey is quite astonishing. On a somewhat smaller scale all climatic zones of Europe can be found. The Black Sea coast is humid all the year round, with the highest rainfall between Rize and Hopa. South of the Pontic Range rainfall drops abruptly and in Central Anatolia dry and winter-cold conditions prevail. Approaching the southern and western coasts, the climate turns more and more Mediterranean, with mild but very rainy winters and dry, hot summers. This simple scheme is complicated a lot by the mountainous surface of Anatolia. On the high mountains harsh climatic conditions persist all the year round. There are even small glaciers on the north side of Cilo Da? and on Mount Ararat.

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